Evaluation of Urinary GGT in Elite Male Karate Athletes Pre & Post Exercise

Document Type: Original Research

Authors

1 Dept. of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 Dept. of Internal Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

3 Education Organization, Subregion 2 , Arak, Iran

Abstract

Background and Aims: Post exercise proteinuria and increased urinary Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels can be indicative of exercise-induced renal damage. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of one session of intensive training on renal tubular injury markers and compare their values to those 6 hours after training, for evaluating tubular damage after intensive training.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study with pre- and post- test design, 10 elite volunteer male athletes were selected and participated in one training session (2 hours). Urine samples were collected before training, one hour after training, and 6 hours after training. Urinary protein, creatinine, and GGT values were measured through laboratory methods and then Pr/Cr and GGT/Cr ratios were computed.
Results: There weresignificant differences between values of protein, urine Pr/Cr ratio, GGT and creatinine in the three sampling phases (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between values for GGT/Cr ratio. There were significant differences between the mean values of creatinine, protein, GGT, and Pr/Cr ratio within pre-exercise and 1 hour post-exercise values and Pr/Cr ratio values in pre-exercise and 6 hours post-exercise (P<0.05).
Conclusions: It seems that a session of karate training does not result in permanent renal damage and for evaluation of tubular function, it is better to get the urine sample for urinary marker at least 6 hours after exercise.
 

Keywords


  1. Pieter W, Lufting R. Injuries at the 1991 taekwondo world championships. Journal of Sports Traumatology and Related Research 1994:16;49–57.
  2. Halabchi F, Ziaee V, Lotfian S. Injury profile in women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005). Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) 6(CSSI-2), 52-7.
  3. Neumayr G, Pfister R, Hoertnagl H, Mitterbauer G, Prokop W, Joannidis M. Renal Function and Plasma Volume Following Ultramarathon Cycling. Int J Sports Med 2005; 26(1):2-8.
  4. Konig D, Schumacher YO, Heinrich L, Schmid A, Berg A, Dickhuth HH. Myocardial Stress after Competitive Exercise in Professional Road Cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(10 ):1679-83. 
  5. Clarkson P, Kearns A, Rouzier P, Rubin R, Thompson P. Serum Creatine Kinase Levels and Renal Function Measures in Exertional Muscle Damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38(4):623-7. 
  6. Abarbanel J, Benet AE, Lask D, Kimche D. Sports hematuria. J Urol 1990; 143: 887-90.
  7. Tipton CM. Exercise physiology: people and ideas. 1st ed. London:Oxford University press;2003.
  8. Karp DR, Shimooku K, Lipsky PE. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase protects Ramos B cells from oxidation-induced cell death. J. Biol Chem 2001;276(6):3798–804.
  9. Tate SS, Meister A. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase from kidney. Methods Enzymol 1985;113:400-19.
  10. Turgut G, Kaptanoğlu B, Turgut S, Genç O, Tekintürk S. Influence of acute exercise on urinary protein, creatinine, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 concentration in children. Tohoku J Exp Med 2003; 201(3):165-70.
  11. Ayca B, Sener A, Apikoglu Rabus S, Oba R. The effect of exercise on urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase and protein leves of volleyball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2006; 46(4): 623-7.
  12. Ayça B, Agopyan A, Sener A, Oba R, Pastirmaci G. Evaluation of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Changing in Urine Related to The Training Load in the Rhythmic Gymnasts Competitors Aged 7-10. Biology of Sport 2008;25(3):233-244.
  13. Bellinghieri G, Savica V, Santoro D. Renal alterations during exercise. J Ren Nutr 2008;18(1):158-64.
  14. Terjung RL, Tripton CM, Sawaka MN. ACSM’s advanced exercise physiology. 1st  ed. New York:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2006.
  15. Delanghe J, De Slypere JP, De Buyzere M, Robbrecht J, Wieme R, Vermeulen A. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. Clin Chem 1989;35(8):1802–3.
  16. Moore RR, Hirate-Dulas CA, Kasiske BL. Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria. Kidney Int 1997;52(1): 240–3.
  17. Price CP, Newall RG, Boyd JC. Use of Protein:Creatinine Ratio Measurements on Random Urine Samples for Prediction of Significant Proteinuria: A Systematic Review. Clin Chem 2005: 51(9):1577–86.
  18. Scarpa P, Di Fabio V, Ramirez C, Baggiani L, Ferro E. Proteinuria, GGT Index and Fractional Clearance of Electrolytes in Exercising Athletic Horses. Vet Res Commun 2007;31(1):339–342.
  19. Nemesanszky E, Lott JA. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and its iso enzymes: progress and problems. Clin Chem 1985;31(6): 797-803.
  20. Vanderlinde RE. Urinary enzyme measurements in the diagnosis of renal disorders. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1981;11(3): 189-201.
  21. Henry JB. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 20th ed. Newyork:Mosby;2001.
  22. Clarkson PM, Kearns AK, Rouzier P, Rubin R, Thompson PD. Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in evectional muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38(4):623-7.