Background & Objective: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Iran. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying as carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics for treatment of infections caused by multi drug resistant gram- negative bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: In this study, all positive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae recorded in blood, urine, and other body fluids were studied during April 2017 to April 2018 in a referral hospital in Tehran. All cases of resistance to carbapenems were first tested by modified Hodge test. All cases with positive or negative test, after gene extraction, were examined genotypically based on the primers designed for the three Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), and OXA-48 genes by conventional PCR method.
Results: 108 isolates (13.6%) were resistant to all cephalosporins as well as to imipenem and meropenem. In a genotypic study, including 45 isolates, 13 isolates were positive for OXA-48 gene, 11 isolates for OXA-48 and NDM genes, 11 isolates for OXA-48, NDM and KPC genes, 4 isolates for OXA-48 genes and KPC, 3 isolates for NDM, one isolate for KPC. On the other hand, two isolates were negative for all three genes examined.
Conclusion: OXA-48 gene was one of the most common genes resistant to carbapenems in Iran. According to studies, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Iran is rising dramatically, which reduces the choice of antibiotics to treat severe infections in the future.