Document Type : Review Article


Ziauddin College of Dentistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan


Oral submucous fibrosis is chronic progressive condition of oral cavity. The condition is well recognized for its malignant potential. Usually the disease initiates with redness, blistering, and ulceration inside the mouth. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of submucosal tissue. The pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is not well understood. Betelquid chewing is the major etiological factor. In Pakistan, oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common cancer in men. The incidence of oral cavity cancer in Karachi South district of Pakistan is the highest in the world. Head and neck cancer are major cancer burden in Pakistan. The incidence of oral submucous fibrosis is common in women as compared to men. While banning tobacco, betel nut, betel, Panmasala and Gutka is the key to prevention of the disease. No specific laboratory tests are available for oral submucous fibrosis. Comprehensive head and neck examinations should be part of all medical and dental examinations. The treatment of patient of oral submucous fibrosis depends on the degree of involvement. Commercially available of economical sachets of gutka, paan have strong association with this.  Government should take some steps for the cessation of these products.


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