Document Type : Original Research
Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Iranian Society for Support of Patients With Infectious Diseases, Tehran, Iran
Dept. of Microbiology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran, Iran
Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) type 1 and 2 are retroviruses that share the same routes of transmission as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As a consequence of epidemiologic similarities, HIV and HTLV-1/2 co-infection is frequent. Due to the limited data, this study assessed the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in HIV infected patients in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in 180 HIV infected patients from Iranian HIV/AIDS Research Center in Tehran and 117 matched healthy controls. The serum samples were checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti HTLV-1/2.
Results: A total of 180 HIV positive patients with mean age 36.9±9.2 years and 117 matched controls were enrolled in the study. All cases and controls were negative for HTLV-1/2 infection.
Conclusion: HTLV-1/2 infection is negligible in HIV infected patients in Tehran, Iran, although intravenous drug use is the most common route of HIV transmission in our study subjects.
- Hogan CM, Hammer SM. Host determinants in HIV infection and disease. Part 2: genetic factors and implications for antiretroviral therapeutics. Ann Intern Med 2001 May 15;134(10):978-96.
- Nicot C. Current views in HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Am J Hematol 2005 Mar;78(3):232-9.
- UNAIDS. Report on the Global AIDS epidemic, 2008. (unaids.org Accessed 09/15/08).
- Li HC, Biggar RJ, Miley WJ, Maloney EM, Cranston B, Hanchard B, et al. Provirus load in breast milk and risk of mother-to-child transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type I. J Infect Dis 2004 Oct 1;190(7):1275-8.
- Iga M, Okayama A, Stuver S, Matsuoka M, Mueller N, Aoki M, et al. Genetic evidence of transmission of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 between spouses. J Infect Dis 2002 Mar 1;185(5):691-5.
- Laurentino RV, Lopes IG, Azevedo VN, Machado LF, Moreira MR, Lobato L, et al. Molecular characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus coinfecting human immunodeficiency virus 1 infected patients in the Amazon region of Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2005 Jul;100(4):371-6.
- Brites C, Sampalo J, Oliveira A. HIV/human T-cell lymphotropic virus coinfection revisited: impact on AIDS progression. AIDS Rev 2009 Jan;11(1):8-16.
- Pereyra F, Addo MM, Kaufmann DE, Liu Y, Miura T, Rathod A, et al. Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy. J Infect Dis 2008 Feb 15;197(4):563-71.
- Hisada M, Maloney EM, Sawada T, Miley WJ, Palmer P, Hanchard B, et al. Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica. Clin Infect Dis 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1551-7.
- Gotuzzo E, Arango C, de Queiroz-Campos A, Isturiz RE. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I in Latin America. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2000 Mar;14(1):211-xi.
- Kaplan JE, Osame M, Kubota H, Igata A, Nishitani H, Maeda Y, et al. The risk of development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis among persons infected with HTLV-I. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1990;3(11):1096-101.
- de TG, Bomford R. An HTLV-I vaccine: why, how, for whom? AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1993 May;9(5):381-6.
- Orland JR, Wang B, Wright DJ, Nass CC, Garratty G, Smith JW, et al. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study. Retrovirology 2004 Mar 24;1:4.:4.
- Roucoux DF, Murphy EL. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II. AIDS Rev 2004 Jul;6(3):144-54.
- Nagai M, Brennan MB, Sakai JA, Mora CA, Jacobson S. CD8(+) T cells are an in vivo reservoir for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Blood 2001 Sep 15;98(6):1858-61.
- Pando MA, Bautista CT, Maulen S, Duranti R, Marone R, Rey J, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus, viral hepatitis (B and C), treponema pallidum, and human T-cell lymphotropic I/II virus among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Sex Transm Dis 2006 May;33(5):307-13.
- Alavi S, Etemadi A. HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV And HIV/HTLV-1 Coinfection among Injection Drug User Patients Hospitalized at the Infectious Disease Ward of A Training Hospital in Iran. Pak J Med Sci 2007 Apr;23(4):510-3.
- Farid R, Etemadi M, Baradaran H, Nikkin B. Seroepidemiology and Virology of HTLV-1 in the City of Mashhad, Northeastern Iran. Serodiagn Immuonother Infect Dis 1993;5(4):251-2.
- Arjmand B, Aghayan SH, Goodarzi P, Farzanehkhah M, Mortazavi SM, Niknam MH, et al. Seroprevalence of human T lymphtropic virus (HTLV) among tissue donors in Iranian tissue bank. Cell Tissue Bank 2009 Aug;10(3):247-52.
- Khameneh ZR, Sepehrvand N, Masudi S, Taghizade-Afshari A. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1 among kidney graft recipients: a single-center study. Exp Clin Transplant 2010 Jun;8(2):146-9.
- Abbaszadegan MR, Gholamin M, Tabatabaee A, Farid R, Houshmand M, Abbaszadegan M. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 among blood donors from Mashhad, Iran. J Clin Microbiol 2003 Jun;41(6):2593-5.
- Rouet F, Rabier R, Foucher C, Chancerel B, Agis F, Strobel M. Geographical clustering of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in Guadeloupe, an endemic Caribbean area. Int J Cancer 1999 May 5;81(3):330-4.
- Seirafi H, Farnaghi F, Firooz A, Mostafa S, Talaei-Khoei M, Davari P, et al. Comparison of seropositivity of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in mycosis fungoides patients and normal volunteers: a case-control study and review of literature. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2009 Jul;75(4):363-7.
- Magalhaes T, Mota-Miranda AC, Alcantara LC, Olavarria V, Galvao-Castro B, Rios-Grassi MF. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of HTLV-1 isolates from a medium sized town in northern of Brazil: tracing a common origin of the virus from the most endemic city in the country. J Med Virol 2008 Nov;80(11):2040-5.