Document Type : Original Research


1 Department of Pathology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

2 Department of Pediatric Oncology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India


Background & Objective: Hepatoblastoma encompasses 1% of pediatric malignancies and is the most common liver malignancy in children. Ninety percent of cases are under 5 years of age. Clinical and pathological risk stratification forms a crucial role in determining the treatment strategy. This study aimed to assess the clinicopathological profile of hepatoblastoma with risk stratification and follow-up in children.
Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed on all pediatric patients recognized with hepatoblastoma between 2016 and 2020 in our institution. Clinical, radiological, biochemical, pathological, and treatment data were analyzed. Cases were stratified based on the SIOPEL protocol and compared with the outcome.
Results: The median age of all children was 1 year, the male-to-female ratio was 2.3:1, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP) was observed in all cases. SIOPEL risk stratification showed that 50% of children are at high risk. The histopathological types were fetal (30%), embryonal (20%), and macrotrabecular (5%) patterns under epithelial type and mixed epithelial and mesenchymal type (45%) with 1 case showing teratoid features. During the follow-up period, of the 7 children who died, 6 belonged to the high-risk SIOPEL category, and 5 had a mixed epithelial and mesenchymal pattern.
Conclusion: Our study found a significant correlation between clinicopathological data, histopathological patterns, and outcomes. Accordingly, histopathological patterns could be considered one of the criteria for risk stratification. Histopathological risk stratification indicators (such as SIOPEL and PRETEXT) have strong prognostic and predictive outcomes; hence, our study emphasizes such parameters to aid oncologists.


Main Subjects

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