Document Type : Original Research
Department of Pathology, PSG IMSR, Coimbatore, India
Department of Professor, Pathology, Annapoorana medical college, Salem, India
Professor, Pathology, PSG IMSR, Coimbatore, India
Background & Objective: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to analyze the gross and histopathological changes in the placentas of growth-restricted fetuses.
Methods: Placentas of fifty growth-restricted fetuses received in the Department of Pathology for 3 years were studied. Clinical data including ultra-sonographic findings were obtained. The received placentas were photographed and the details were documented in a prepared template. The relevant tissues were processed, analyzed, and correlated with the clinical findings.
Results: The study demonstrates distinctive gross and histological abnormalities in the placentas of growth-restricted fetuses. More than two-thirds of the placentas had shorter gestational age (preterm), seen as commonly associated with maternal co-morbidities such as oligohydramnios and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). The predominant gross lesions observed were the umbilical cord abnormalities, infarcts, and intervillous thrombus. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) and fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) were the two common histologic findings. Characteristic placental lesions with a significant risk of recurrence identified were distal villous immaturity (DVI), villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), and massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPVFD). The unusual placental causes included villous capillary lesions and histological chorioamnionitis.
Conclusion: Although a diverse etiology can cause FGR, the severity depends on the cumulative effects of multiple placental lesions. Hence, a meticulous placental examination is crucial for the effective management of growth-restricted fetuses in the current and subsequent pregnancies.
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