Document Type : Review Article


1 Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Dept. of Pathology, Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors. The current diagnostic tools are based on biochemistry and histopathology results, but heterogeneity of diagnostic markers, signs and symptoms of PCCs bring a lot of difficulties for these two current methods. Unfortunately microscopic understanding of PCCs is not adequate for its confident prognosis and management. There are data linking specific genotypes of PCCs tumors to specific locations, typical biochemical phenotypes or future clinical behaviors. The detection of a germ-line mutation possibly can guide us to an early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and regular surveillance with better prognosis not only for the patient but also for their family members. Moreover, the latest discoveries in gene sequencing, circulating DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) will support the exact molecular pathogenesis of PCCs in order to provide an important basis for future PCCs managements.


Main Subjects

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