Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes individuals to experience a variety of cognitive and physical problems. As proven by two decades of clinical experience with immunomodulatory therapies for MS, the disease progresses and relapses through several immunological pathways. New medicines aimed at remyelination and neurodegeneration are being developed; however, they need stronger evidence before being introduced into routine clinical care. The purpose of this study was a thorough assessment of MS immunopathology and predictive biomarkers.
Methods: Immunotherapy, immunopathogenesis, and prognostic biomarkers were all parts of the search method. Only publications in English were considered for inclusion in the study. For that purpose, we went through the current state of knowledge around MS immunopathology and related biomarkers. Immunology, as well as the identification of increased inflammation as an important component of neurodegeneration, shaped our understanding of this disease aetiology. The relevant sources examined covered the years 2015-2021.
Conclusion: We found biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood that might be used for the prediction and diagnosis of MS, as well as for measuring treatment response and adverse effects. Many variables, including the role of some infectious organisms and the impact of environmental and social factors, might contribute to the immunological dysfunctions seen in MS. Patients with MS may benefit from better therapy options if a better understanding of MS biomarkers and immune response mechanisms would be obtained.