Background & Objective: Various studies showed the use of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) gene mutations in the therapeutic plan of patients with advanced lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and types of EGFR gene mutations among Iranian patients with lung adenocarcinoma referred to a specialized lung diseases hospital from 2014 to 2019.
Methods: The data of all patients with lung adenocarcinoma referred to the Molecular Department of Masih Daneshvari Hospital Laboratory (National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases) from 2014 to 2019 for EGFR mutation tests were collected. Patients' characteristics data and information on the frequency and types of EGFR gene mutations were obtained from the hospital information system (HIS). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 25.
Results: A total of 570 individuals (Mean age of 58.74, 51.6% Male) were included in the study; 113 out of 570 patients (19.8%) were diagnosed with gene mutation. In terms of the type of mutation, 65 participants (57%) showed deletion, 48 patients (42.1%) were diagnosed with replacement, and one (0.9%) case demonstrated both. Notably, the mutation rate detected among the female patients was significantly higher than the male ones (P=0.001); in particular, deletion type of mutation was found more among women, although both genders were the same in terms of the replacement frequency. However, the age had no effect on the mutation in this study (P=0.05).
Conclusion: Among Iranian patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 19.8% harbored EGFR gene mutation. This mutation was found in association with lung cancer and could affect the patient's therapeutic plan.
- The frequency of EGFR mutation among 570 Iranian patients with lung adenocarcinoma was 19.8%.
- The most common type of mutation was "deletion," presented in exon 19.
- The mutation frequency was significantly higher among females, mainly in exon 19 and deletion form.
- Different age groups did not affect the mutation, but the mutation rate was notably higher among non-smokers patients.
- Patients with mutated EGFR gene might benefit from EGFR inhibitor drugs, and as this mutation is not rare among the Iranian population, physicians should consider its evaluation.