Document Type : Original Research


1 Histopathology Department, Pathology Lab, Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq

2 Department of Basic Sciences/Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq


Background & Objective: Gastric cancer (GC) persists to be a major health issue globally, and the need to investigate new molecular markers for improving the survival of patients continues. CDX2 is a homeobox caudal protein family member encoded by the CDX2 gene and is probably playing a role in intestinal epithelial differentiation and proliferation. This study aimed to assess the expression of this protein in gastric cancer cells in addition to its correlation with multiple clinicopathological parameters.
Methods: This observational retrospective study was carried out on 80 gastric cancer cases in Erbil, Iraq. CDX2 protein immunoexpression in tumor cells, as well as its correlation with several clinicopathological criteria, were investigated.
Results: CDX2 was detected in 38.75% of GC patients. We found a significant correlation between CDX2 expression and the age of patients (P=0.02). Even though the protein was more expressed in tumors with negative lymphovascular invasion and intestinal GC, there was no significant correlation between the expression of this protein and invasion. In addition, CDX2 expression was not significantly correlated with patient gender, tumor grade, nodal status, and tumor stage.
Conclusion: CDX2 expression was observed to be downregulated in younger patients. It could be due to the higher frequency of diffuse GC, in which CDX2 is expressed less than the intestinal type, in younger individuals.


  • A significant correlation was detected between the age of patientsand CDX2 expression in tumor cells.
  • A non-significant negative relationship although not statistically significant, was noted between lymphovascular invasion and CDX2 expression.
  • CDX2 expression was detected more in the intestinal-type gastric carcinomas.
  • We observed no significant correlation between CDX2 expression and the gender of patients.


Main Subjects

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