Document Type : Original Research
Dept. of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Dept. of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Dept. of Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Iranian Society for Support of Patients with Infectious Diseases, Tehran, Iran
Background and Objectives: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women throughout the world. There are controversial reports on the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in breast carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of HPV-DNA in invasive breast carcinoma to determine the association between HPV infection and breast carcinoma. Methods: The study included formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 100 cases with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast and 50 control tissues of mammoplasty specimens. HPV-DNA was purified and amplified through GP5+/GP6+ and MY09/MY11 primers. Results: All tested carcinomas as well as normal tissues were negative for all types of HPV in PCR assay. Conclusion: Our results do not support the association between HPV infection and breast carcinoma. Further studies involving larger number of cases are required to elucidate the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis.
- GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/populations/ factsheet.asp? uno=900.
- Harirchi I, Karbakhsh M, Kashefi A, Momtahen AJ. Breast cancer in Iran: results of a multi-center study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004;5:24–27.
- Naghavi M. Mortality views in 18 Provinces of Iran 2001. Ministry of Health, Deputy to Health Directory, Research and development office, 2003;75 (Persian).
- Simões PW, Medeiros LR, Simões Pires PD, Edelweiss MI, Rosa DD, Silva FR, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in breast cancer: a systematic review. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012; 22(3):343-7.
- Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA, Jarrahi AM, Harirchi I, Najafi M, Ebrahimi M. Breast cancer in Iran: an epidemiological review. Breast J 2007; 13(4):383-91.
- Band V. Preneoplastic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Semin Cancer Biol 1995; 6:185-192.
- Pereira Suarez AL, Lorenzetti MA, Gonzalez Lucano R, Cohen M, Gass H, Martinez Vazquez P, et al. Presence of human papilloma virus in a series of breast carcinoma from Argentina. PLoS One 2013 25;8(4):e61613.
- Bosch FX, de Sanjose S. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer. Curr Oncol Rep 2002; 4(2):175–183.
- Madeleine MM, Daling JR, Carter JJ, Wipf GC, Schwartz SM, McKnight B, et al. Cofactors with human papillomavirus in a population-based study of vulvar cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89(20):1516–1523.
- Daling JR, Sherman KJ. Relationship between human papillomavirus infection and tumours of anogenital sites other than the cervix. IARC Sci Publ 1992; 119:223–241.
- Tornesello ML, Duraturo ML, Losito S, Botti G, Pilotti S, Stefanon B, et al. Human papillomavirus genotypes and HPV16 variants in penile carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2008; 122(1):132–137.
- Gillison ML, Koch WM, Capone RB, Spafford M, Westra WH, Wu L, et al. Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(9):709–720.
- Far AE, Aghakhani A, Hamkar R, Ramezani A, Pishbigar HF, Mirmomen S, et al. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian patients. Scand J Infect Dis 2007; 39(1):58-62.
- di Lonardo A, Venuti A, Marcante ML. Human papillomavirus in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1992; 21(2):95-100.
- Hennig EM, Suo Z, Thoresen S, Holm R, Kvinnsland S, Nesland JM. Human papillomavirus 16 in breast cancer of women treated for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III). Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999; 53(2):121-35.
- Damin AP, Karam R, Zettler CG, Caleffi M, Alexandre CO. Evidence for an association of human papillomavirus and breast carcinomas. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004; 84(2):131-7.
- Widschwendter A, Brunhuber T, Wiedemair A, Mueller-Holzner E, Marth C. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in breast cancer of patients with cervical cancer history. J Clin Virol 2004; 31(4):292-7.
- de Villiers EM, Sandstrom RE, zur Hausen H, Buck CE.Presence of papillomavirus sequences in condylomatous lesions of the mamillae and in invasive carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer Res 2005; 7(1):R1-11.
- Kan CY, Iacopetta BJ, Lawson JS, Whitaker NJ. Identiﬁcation of human papillomavirus DNA gene sequences in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 93(8):946-8.
- Heng B, Glenn WK, Ye Y, Tran B, Delprado W, Lutze-Mann L , et al. Human papilloma virus is associated with breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2009;101(8):1345-50.
- Tsai JH, Hsu CS, Tsai CH, Su JM, Liu YT, Cheng MH, et al. Relationship between viral factors, axillary lymph node status and survival in breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2007;133(1):13-21.
- Gopalkrishna V, Singh UR, Sodhani P, Sharma JK, Hedau ST, Mandal AK, Das BC . Absence of human papillomavirus DNA in breast cancer as revealed by polymerase chain reaction. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1996; 39(2):197-202.
- Lindel K, Forster A, Altermatt HJ, Greiner R, Gruber G. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: no evidence of a viral etiology in a group of Swiss women. Breast 2007; 16(2):172-7.
- de Cremoux P, Thioux M, Lebigot I, Sigal-Zafrani B, Salmon R, Sastre-Garau X , et al. No evidence of Human papillomavirus DNA sequences in invasive breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;109(1):55-58.
- Aghakhani A, Hamkar R, Parvin M, Ghavami N, Nadri M, Pakfetrat A, et al. The role of human papillomavirus infection in prostate carcinoma. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011; 43(1):64-69.
- American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
- Dumitrescu RG, Cotarla I. Understanding breast cancer risk − where do we stand in 2005? J Cell Mol Med 2005; 9: 208 -221.
- McPherson K, Steel CM, Dixon JM. ABC of breast diseases. Breast cancer epidemiology, risk factors, and genetics. BMJ 2000; 321: 624 -628.
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010; 127:2893–2917.
- Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61:69–90.
- Silva RG Jr, Silva BB. No evidence for an association of human papillomavirus and breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011; 125:261-264.
- Wrede D, Luqmani YA, Coombes RC, Vousden KH. Absence of HPV 16 and 18 DNA in breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1992;65:891-894.
- Mendizabal-Ruiz AP, Morales JA, Ramı´rez-Jirano LJ, Padilla-Rosas M, Morán-Moguel MC, Montoya-Fuentes H. Low frequency of human papillomavirus DNA in breast cancer tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009; 114:189-194.
- Kroupis C, Markou A, Vourlidis N, Dionyssiou-Asteriou A, Lianidou ES. Presence of high-risk human papillomavirus sequences in breast cancer tissues and association with histopathological characteristics. Clin Biochem 2006; 39:727-731.
- Sigaroodi A, Nadji SA, Naghshvar F, Nategh R, Emami H, Velayati AA. Human Papillomavirus Is Associated with Breast Cancer in the North Part of Iran. Scientific World Journal 2012; 2012:837191.
- de León DC, Montiel DP, Nemcova J, Mykyskova I, Turcios E, Villavicencio V, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients. BMC Cancer 2009 22; 9:26.
- Khan NA, Castillo A, Koriyama C, Kijima Y, Umekita Y, Ohi Y, et al. Human papillomavirus detected in female breast carcinomas in Japan. Br J Cancer 2008; 99:408-414.