Sero-prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma Infections among Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients

Document Type: Letters to the Editor

Authors

1 Sanitation Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand

2 Visiting Professor, Hainan Medical University, China


Sir, the recent report on sero-prevalence of cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma infections among newly diagnosed HIV patients is very interesting (1). Basically, the CMV and toxoplasmosis are considered opportunistic infections that are rarely seen in general healthy immunocompetent population. The clinical presentations of CMV include retinitis, dysphagia and pneumonia, whereas the clinical presentations of toxoplasmosis include lymphadenitis and neurological deficit. Statistically, in helath population, the prevalence of CMV and toxoplasmosis seropositivities are 3.3 % (2) and 9.3 % (3), respectively. In the present case control study, Abdollahi et al. concluded that “CMV and toxoplasmosis infection are highly prevalent among HIV infected patients and also healthy controls, with a higher seropositive rate of CMV in HIV cases (1).” Indeed, either CMV or toxoplasmosis is classified as important infection among HIV infected cases and these diseases can be seen around the world. Based on the derived data, the next question is how to manage the situation. Ajayi et al. noted that “a large number of HIV-positive patients are carriers of other antibodies and should be screened for them before therapy (4).”  The screening tests for both diseases among any HIV infected patients might be useful and should be further studied for cost effectiveness.

  1. Abdollahi A, Shoar S, Sheikhbahaei S, Jafari S.  Sero-prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma Infections among Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients in Iran; Assessing the Correlation with CD4+ Cell Counts. Iran J Pathol 2013;8(2):81–8.
  2. Tantivanich S, Laohapand P, Thaweeboon S, Desakorn V, Wuthinuntiwong P, Chalermtaranukul S, et al. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus-6, and Epstein-Barr virus in periodontitis patients and healthy subjects in the Thai population. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004;35(3):635 - 40.
  3. Chiang TY, Hsieh HH, Kuo MC, Chiu KT, Lin WC, Fan CK, et al. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e48139.
  4. Ajayi GO, Omilabu SA, Alamu D, Balogun Y, Badaru S. Seroprevalence of other antibodies (herpes, CMV, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, chlamydia, mumps, toxoplasmosis) in HIV-positive patients. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2011;38(2):172-4.