Document Type: Original Research


1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Digestive Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Farabi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Emergency Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background & Objective: Appropriate use of laboratory testing is essential for achieving safe and effective care to patient. Insufficient knowledge could lead to poor case management and increase the health care costs. It is believed that education on laboratory testing for undergraduate medical student is inadequate. This study was designed to evaluate the level of knowledge of 5 and 6 year undergraduate medical students in field of laboratory medicine.
Methods: Totally, 59 questions including 8 basic questions concerning individual assessment of their knowledge and 51 objective questions focusing on various stages of test ordering and interpretation were asked.
Results: Thirty seven undergraduate medical students at the level of internship participated. On average, 47.9% of students evaluated themselves as “weak" in 8 self-assessment questions. There was no significant difference between responders assessment on their own knowledge in various aspects of laboratory testing (P=0.184). In the objective questions regarding various stages of test ordering including pre-analytic, analytic and post analytic phases,45.6%,51.9% and 50% correct answers were reported ,respectively. Comparison of the level of the knowledge of the students regarding various stages of pathology testing did not show significant difference (P=0.638).
Conclusion: Prioritizing an effective teaching method of laboratory medicine to medical students on appropriate time should be considered in medical school curriculum for better clinical decision making and optimal modern medical care.


Main Subjects

  1. Smith BR, Aguereo-Rosenfeld M, Anastasi J, Baron B, Berg A, Bock JL, et al. Educating Medical Students in Laboratory Medicine. A proposed Curriculum. Am J Clin Pathol, 2010. 133: p. 533-542. [DOI:10.1309/AJCPQCT94SFERLNI] [PMID]
  2. Barai I, et al. The importance of laboratory medicine in the medical student curriculum. Med Educ., 2015. 20: p. 30309- [DOI:10.3402/meo.v20.30309] [PMID] [PMCID]
  3. Hearing JC and Lu WH. Trends in teaching laboratory medicine in microbiology to undergraduate medical students: A survay study. Med. Sci. Educ., 2014. 24: p. 117-123. [DOI:10.1007/s40670-014-0015-4]
  4. Molinaro RJ, Winkler AM, Kraft CS, Fantz CR, Stowell SR, Ritchie JC, et al. Teaching Laboratory Medicine to Medical Students: implementation and Evaluation. Arch Pathol Lab Med., 2011. 136(11): p. 1423-1429. [DOI:10.5858/arpa.2011-0537-EP] [PMID] [PMCID]
  5. Omidifar N, Keshtkari A, Dehghani M, Shokripour al. Introduction to clinical pathology: A brief course of laboratory medicine in the field for medical students. J Edu Health Promot, 2017. 6: p. 84. [DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_32_17] [PMID] [PMCID]
  6. Division of laboratory Systems, N.C.f.P., Detection, and Control of Infectiuos Disease, Center for Disease Control and Prevention., Laboratory Medicine: a natinal status report.
  7. Devision of Laboratory Systems, C.f.D.C.a.P.P.c.C.a.l.m.n.s.r.-u., Published May 2009. Accessed August 1, 2009.
  8. Smith BR, Kamoun M, Hickner J. Laboratory Medicine Education at U.S. Medical schools: A 2014 status report. Academic Medicine: p.
  9. van Walraven C.and Naylor CD. Do we know what inappropriate laboratory utilization is? a systematic review of laboratory clinicl audits. JAMA., 1998. 280: p. 550-558. [DOI:10.1001/jama.280.6.550] [PMID]
  10. Green ML, Ciampi MA, Ellis PJ. Resident,s medical information needs in clinic:are they being met? Am J Med., 2000. 109: p. 218-223. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00458-7]
  11. Wilson ML. Educating medical students in laboratory medicine. Am J Clin Pathol, 2010. 133: p. 525-528. [DOI:10.1309/AJCPQIA4FUGMVHT8] [PMID]
  12. Marshall R, Cartwright N, Mattick K. Teaching and learning pathology: a critical review of the English literature. Med Educ., 2004. 38: p. 302-312. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2004.01775.x] [PMID]
  13. Kumar K, Indurkhya A, Nguyen H. Curricular trends in instruction of pathology:A nationwide longitudinal study from 1993 to present. Human Pathology, 2001. 32(11): p. 1147-... [DOI:10.1053/hupa.2001.29788] [PMID]
  14. Ghandi TK, Kachalia A, Thomas EJ, Pouopolo AL, Yoon C, Brennan TA, et al. Missed and delayed diagnoses in the ambulatory setting: a study of closed malpractice claims. Ann Intern Med, 2006. 145: p. 488-496. [DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-145-7-200610030-00006] [PMID]
  15. Canaris GJ, Flach SD, Tape TG, Stierwalt KM, Haggstrom DA, Wigton RS. Can internal medicine residents master microscopic urinanalysis?Results of an evaluation and teaching intervention. Acad Med, 2003. 78(5): p. 525-529. [DOI:10.1097/00001888-200305000-00018] [PMID]
  16. Bergus G, Vogelgesang S, Tansey J, Franklin E, Feld R. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment. BMC Med Ed, 2004. 4: p. 20. [DOI:10.1186/1472-6920-4-20] [PMID] [PMCID]
  17. Jones A, McArdle PJ, O,Neill PA. Perceptions of how well graduates are prepared for the role of pre-registration house officer: a comparison of outcomes from a traditional and an integrated PBL curriculum. Med Educ., 2002. 36: p. 16-25. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01105.x] [PMID]
  18. Wartman S, Davis A, Wilson M, et al. Curricular change: recommendations from a national prespective. Acad Med, 2001. 76(4 suppl): S140-S145 [DOI:10.1097/00001888-200104001-00028] [PMID]
  19. Prichard RW, Davis JS, Masten JM. Teaching pathology to medical students in the 1990s: a 1989 symposium of the Association of Pathology Chairmen. Hum Pathol, 1992. 23: P. 98-103 [DOI:10.1016/0046-8177(92)90229-V]
  20. Clejan S, Crawford BE II. Modalities of teaching laboratory medicine/clinical pathology in the 21st century: how to make the most of limited options. Pathol Educ,2001. 25: P. 70-81
  21. Laposata M. Insufficient teaching of laboratory medicine in US medical schools. Academic Pathology, 2016. 3: p. 1-2. [DOI:10.1177/2374289516634108] [PMID] [PMCID]
  22. Gottfried EL, Kamoun M, Burke MD. Laboratory Medicine education in United States medical schools . Am J Clin Pathol, 1993. 100: p. 594-598. [DOI:10.1093/ajcp/100.6.594] [PMID]
  23. Abdollahi A, Jalali Nadoushan MR. Little attention paid to laboratory medical school curriculum. Iran J Pathol., 2011. 6: p. 1-2.
  24. Moslem Bahadori. A historical review of the development of pathology in Iran. Arch Iranian Med;7(4):311-315
  25. Haspel RL, Bhargava P, Gilmore H, Kane S, Powers A, Sepehr A, et al. Successful implementation of a longitudinal, integrated pathology curriculum during the third year of medical school. Arch Pathol Lab Med., 2012. 136: p. 1430-1436. [DOI:10.5858/arpa.2011-0539-EP] [PMID]
  26. Newton DA, Grayson MS. Trends in career choice by US medical school graduates. JAMA, 2003. 290: P. 1179-82 [DOI:10.1001/jama.290.9.1179] [PMID]
  27. Ghanchi NK, Nizamuddin RN, Qasim A, Khaled ZN, Raheem AB, Ali N, et al. perception of pathology as a future career choice among medical students from Karachi, Pakistan: Experience from a private medical school. J Pak Med Assoc., 2017. 67(4): p. 627-629.
  28. Gray TA,El-Kadiki A. Filling the gaps in undergraduate teaching of clinical biochemistry. J Clin Pathol,2010.63: P. 99-101 [DOI:10.1136/jcp.2009.066670] [PMID]