Association of Some High-Risk Mucosal Types of Human Papillomavirus with Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in an Iranian Population

Document Type: Original Research

Authors

1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Gametogenesis Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

3 Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

10.30699/ijp.2019.101544.2011

Abstract

Background & Objective: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer that may be caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially in immunosuppressed patients. However, the role of the mucosal types of HPV in SCC patients with normal immunity has not been extensively confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of some high-risk mucosal types of HPV with cutaneous SCC in an Iranian population. 
Methods: Sixty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens with a diagnosis of cutaneous SCC as the case group and sixty-five healthy skin specimens as the control group were included in our case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from tissue samples and then PCR was used for the detection of HPV genotypes by a commercial kit.
Results: Our data revealed that 6 out of 65 SCC samples (9.2%) were infected by high-risk mucosal types of HPV whereas none of the 65 control samples were infected by the mentioned HPVs. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between these types of HPV infection and SCC risk in our studied population (P=0.028).
Conclusion: These findings suggested that some high-risk mucosal types of HPV are significant risk factors for cutaneous SCC.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Zur Hausen H, De Villiers EM. Human papilloma viruses. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1994;48:427-47. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.002235]
  2. Tierney P, de Gruijl FR, Ibbotson S, Moseley H. Predicted increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma induction associated with sunbed exposure habits. Br J Dermatol. 2015;173(1):201-8. [DOI:10.1111/bjd.13714]
  3. Stratigos A, Garbe C, Lebbe C, Malvehy J, del Marmol V, Pehamberger H, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(14):1989-2007. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2015.06.110]
  4. Shayanfar N, Hosseini N, Panahi M, Azadmanesh K, Mohammadpour M, Kadivar M, et al. Detection of mucosal type human papillomavirus in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Iran. Pathol Res Pract. 2013;209(2):90-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2012.10.010]
  5. Shahmahmoudi S, Mahmoodi M, Azad TM, Rad KS, Tabatabaie H, Sarijlou M, et al. Prevalence of mucosal types of human papillomavirus in skin lesions in north part of Iran. Cancer Lett. 2007;247(1):72-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2006.03.023]
  6. Harwood CA, McGregor JM, Proby CM, Breuer J. Human papillomavirus and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Clin Pathol. 1999;52(4):249-53. [DOI:10.1136/jcp.52.4.249]
  7. Biliris KA, Koumantakis E, Dokianakis DN, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA.. Human papillomavirus infection of non-melanoma skin cancers in immunocompetent hosts. Cancer Lett. 2000;161(1):83-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00596-6]
  8. Shahmahmoudi S, Mahmoodi M, Azad TM, Rad KS, Tabatabaie H, Sarijlou M, et al. Prevalence of mucosal types of human papillomavirus in skin lesions in north part of Iran. Cancer Lett. 2007;247(1):72-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2006.03.023]
  9. Iftner A1, Klug SJ, Garbe C, Blum A, Stancu A, Wilczynski SP, Iftner T.. The prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in nonmelanoma skin cancers of nonimmunosuppressed individuals identifies high-risk genital types as possible risk factors. Cancer Res. 2003;63(21):7515-9.
  10. Accardi R, Gheit T. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer. La Presse Médicale. 2014; 43(12 Pt 2):e435-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.08.008]
  11. Forslund O, Iftner T, Andersson K, Lindelof B, Hradil E, Nordin P,, et al. Cutaneous human papillomaviruses found in sun-exposed skin: Beta-papillomavirus species 2 predominates in squamous cell carcinoma. J Infect Dis. 2007; 196(6): 876-83. [DOI:10.1086/521031]
  12. Chahoud J, Semaan A, Chen Y, Cao M, Rieber AG, Rady P, Tyring SK. Association Between β-Genus Human Papillomavirus and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Immunocompetent Individuals-A Meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2016; 152(12): 1354-64. [DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.4530]
  13. Iannacone MR, Gheit T, Waterboer T, Giuliano AR, Messina JL, Fenske NA, et al. Case-control study of cutaneous human papillomaviruses in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21(8):1303-13. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0032]
  14. Karagas MR, Nelson HH, Sehr P, Waterboer T, Stukel TA, Andrew A,, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and incidence of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the skin. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(6):389-95. [DOI:10.1093/jnci/djj092]
  15. Faust H, Andersson K, Luostarinen T, Gislefoss RE, Dillner J, et al. Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(4):721-4. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-1290]
  16. Plasmeijer EI, Pandeya N, O'Rourke P, Pawlita M, Waterboer T, Feltkamp MC, et al. The Association between cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and betapapillomavirus seropositivity: a cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(6):1171-7. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0110]
  17. Andersson K, Waterboer T, Kirnbauer R, Slupetzky K, Iftner T, de Villiers EM, et al. Seroreactivity to cutaneous human papillomaviruses among patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer or benign skin lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(1):189-95. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0405]