Document Type : Original Research
Infectious Diseases Research Center (IDRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
Iranian Society for Support of Patients with Infectious Disease, Tehran, Iran
Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Background: The household transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem. High incidence of HBV infection is observed within the household contacts of HBV carriers. We aimed to evaluate serological markers of hepatitis B infection among family members of HBV carriers in Arak, central Iran.
Methods: Data were collected from the 100 chronic HBV carriers (subjects with positive HBsAg for at least 6 months period) as index cases and 700 members of their family. Then, we checked serologic markers of hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti- HBs)] using the ELISA test.
Results: The prevalence rate of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc among household members was 23.3%, 20.4% and 23% respectively. Isolated anti-HBc (positive anti-HBc with negative HBsAg and anti-HBs) found in 0.4% of family members. Mothers and children with 47.6% and 17.2% had the highest and lowest rates of HBV infection, respectively (P=0.00). There was a significant difference between mothers and spouses of index case (47.6% and 29.8%) regarding HBsAg positivity (P=0.03).
Conclusion: The low rate of HBV infection reported in children reveal the effective prevention of HBV transmission with the universal vaccination programs and also importance of pregnant women screening for HBV serological markers.
- Cha C, Dematteo RP. Molecular mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 19:25–37.
- Alavian SM, Hajariazdeh B, Ahmadzad Asl M, Kabir A, Bagheri Lankarani K. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Iran: A Systematic Review. Hepat Mon 2008;8(4):281-94.
- Pournik O, Alavian SM, Ghalichi L, Hajibeigi B, Razavi AR, Eslami S. Lower intrafamilial transmission rate of hepatitis B in patients with hepatitis d coinfection: a data-miningapproach. Hepat Mon 2013;13(5).
- Ragheb M, Elkady A, Tanaka Y, Murakami S, Attia FM, Hassan AA, et al. Multiple intra-familial transmission patterns of hepatitis B virus genotype D in north-eastern Egypt. J Med Virol 2012;84(4):587-95.
- Lobato C, Tavares-Neto J, Rios-Leite M, Trepo C, Vitvitski L, Parvaz P, et al. Intrafamilial prevalence of hepatitis B virus in Western Brazilian Amazon region: epidemiologic and biomolecular study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 21(5):863-8.
- Mohammad Alizadeh AH, Ranjbar M, Ansari S, Alavian SM, Shalmani HM, Hekmat L, et al. Intra-familial prevalence of hepatitis B virologic markers in HBsAg positive family members in Nahavand, Iran. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11(31):4857-60.
- Alavian SM MP, Malekzadeh R, Azimi K, Vosough H, Sarrafi M, et al. Evaluation of Hepatitis B Transmission Risk Factors in Tehran Blood Donors. Govaresh 2004; 3(9):169-75.
- Ucmak H, Faruk Kokoglu O, Celik M, Ergun UG. Intra-familial spread of hepatitis B virus infection in eastern Turkey. Epidemiol Infect 2007; 135(8):1338-43.
- Lionis C, Frangoulis E, Koulentakis M, Biziagos E, Kouroumalis E. Prevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C markers in school children of a rural area of Crete, Greece. Eur J Epidemiol 1997; 13:417-420
- Custer B, Sullivan SD, Hazlet TK, Iloeje U, Veenstra DL, Kowdley KV. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38:S158–S168.
- Alavian SM, Lankarani K. Hepatitis B Virus Infection; A Vanishing Disease in Iranian Children J Compr Ped 2012;3(1):1-2
- Alavian SM, Fallahian F, Lankarani KB. The changing epidemiology of viral hepatitis B in Iran. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2007;16(4):403-6.
- Zervou EK, Gatselis NK, Xanthi E, Ziciadis K, Georgiadou SP, Dalekos GN. Intrafamilial spread of hepatitis B virus infection in Greece. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 17: 911-5.
- Lin CL, Kao JH, Chen BF, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Application of Hepatitis B virus Genotyping and phylogenetic Analysis in Intrafamilial Transmission of Hepatitis B virus. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 1576-81.
- Chakravarty R, Chowdhury A, Chaudhuri S, Santra A, Neogi M, Rajendran K, et al. Hepatitis B infection in Eastern Indian families: Need for screening of adult siblings and mothers of adult index cases. Public Health 2005; 119: 647-54.
- Merat S, Malekzadeh R, Rezvan H, Khatibian M. Hepatitis B in Iran. Arch Iran Med 2000; 3: 192-201.
- Sung JL, Chen DS. Clustering of different subtypes of hepatitis surface antigen in families of patients with chronic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1978; 69:559-564.
- Hatami H, Salehi M, Sanei E, Khosravi S, Alavian SM. Intra-familial Transmission of Hepatitis B virus Infection in Zahedan. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013;15(1):4-8
- Salkic NN, Zerem E, Zildzic M, Ahmetagic S, Cickusic E, Ljuca F. Risk factors for intrafamilial spread of Hepatitis B in Northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ann Saudi Med 2009; 29: 41-5.
- Franco E, Bagnato B, Marino MG, Meleleo C, Serino L, Zaratti L. Hepatitis B: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries. World J Hepatol 2012; 4: 74-80.
- PourShams A, Nasiri J, Mohammadkhani A, Nasrollahzadeh D. Hepatitis B in Gonbad-Kavoos: prevalence, risk factors and intrafamilial spreading. Govaresh 2004; 9(4):222-5.
- Mansour-Ghanaei F, Joukar F, Yaseri M, Soati F, Atrkar-Roushan Z. Intrafamilial spread of hepatitis B virus in Guilan Province-North of Iran. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2013;4(4):250-7
- Roushan MR, Mohraz M, Velayati AA. Possible transmission of hepatitis B virus between spouses and their children in Babol, Northern Iran. Trop Doct 2007;37(4):245-7.
- Ranjbar M, Golzardi Z, Sedigh L, Nekoozadeh S. Intrafamilial seropositivity of hepatitis in patients with hepatitis B and C virus in hepatitis clinic in Hamadan, Iran. Ann Hepatol 2012; 11(1):32-6.
- Kim YS, Ahn YO, Kim DW. Familial clustering of hepatitis B and C viruses in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 1994; 9: 444-449
- Williams SJ, Craig PI, Liddle C, Batey RG, Farrell GC. Hepatitis B in Australia: determinants of intrafamily spread. Aust N Z J Med 1987; 17: 220-227
- Porres JC, Carreno V, Bartolome J, Gutiez J, Castillo I. A dynamic study of the intra-familial spread of hepatitis B virus infection: relation with the viral replication. J Med Virol 1989; 28: 237-242
- Nokhodiyan Z, Kassaian N, Ataei B, Javadi AA, shoaei P, Farajzadegan Z, et al. Hepatitis B Markers in Isfahan, Central Iran: A Population-Based Study. Hepat Mon 2009; 9(1):12-6.
- Chemin I, Zoulim F, Merle P Arkhis A, Chevallier M, Kay A, et al. High incidence of hepatitis B infection among chronic hepatitis cases of unknown aetiology. J Hepatol 2001; 34:447–54.